Leptospirosis a bacterial infection carried by water contaminated with urine of infected rats, dogs or pigs.
- Mild headache
- Muscle pain
- Fever to severe bleeding in the lungs
- In some cases, however, there could be no symptoms at all
The bacterium enters the body when the skin, especially if bruised or cut, or eyes come in contact with the contaminated water.
If not treated immediately, leptospirosis can cause kidney damage, meningitis (inflammation of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord), respiratory diseases, liver failure, and even death.
The disease is caused by the oral intake of contaminated water. It could be viral or bacterial.
Food is easily contaminated during floods and clean drinking water is difficult to find. So, in such situations, it’s recommended to take ORS regularly even if there are no symptoms.
In severe cases, hospital admission may be required as the disease can cause kidney failure.
Mosquito-borne diseases are difficult to prevent, especially during calamities, but precautionary steps can be taken to keep them at bay. The symptoms of malaria include fever, chills and fatigue.
If left untreated, malaria can quickly become life threatening as it disrupts blood supply to vital organs.
Ways to prevent the disease include sleeping under mosquito nets and residual spraying of insecticide.
Dengue is also a mosquito-borne disease. With the drainage system in a mess due to the rains, the city could become a breeding ground for mosquitos.
- Mild to high fever
- Severe headache
- Pain behind the eyes
- Muscle and joint pain
While no vaccine or specific medicine is available to treat dengue, preventive measures include drinking plenty of fluids.
Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacteria.
Ensuring safe drinking water and proper sanitation are critical in preventing it.
Typhoid, a disease that spreads rapidly, is usually caused by eating contaminated food or water.
- Prolonged fever
- Loss of appetite
Besides these, other diseases watch out for include hypothermia, respiratory tract infections and Hepatitis A.