Piles/ Haemorrhoids- Causes, Symptoms and Management

Haemorrhoids are dilated veins within the anal canal. It presents as a mass/lump/soft swelling. Whenever inflamed it becomes painful and starts bleeding .They are generally classified into two categories

  • Internal
  • External

Internal haemorrhoids are mass or lump within the anal canal. It is covered with mucus membrane.

External haemorrhoids are lump or mass outside the anal canal. It is covered with skin.


  • Hereditary: It is often seen in members of the same family
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Lifting heavy objects
  • Prolonged constipation or excessive straining for stool
  • Controlling the urge to pass stool
  • Excessive use of laxatives

In some cases, haemorrhoids  may be secondary to a few conditions

  • Carcinoma rectum
  • Pregnancy
  • Chronic constipation
  • Difficulty in urination
  • Portal hypertension

Symptoms of Haemorrhoids

  • Bleeding
  • Prolapse- Mass protruding through anus. According to prolapsed, haemorrhoids can be divided into four stages.
    • 1st degree: Haemorrhoid doesn’t come out of the anus.
    • 2nd degree: Haemorrhoids comes out only while passing stool and is reduced spontaneously after that.
    • 3rd degree: Haemorrhoids comes out only while passing motion and do not reduce by itself but need to be replaced manually and then they stay reduced.
    • 4th degree: Haemorrhoids that are permanently prolapsed at this stage with great discomfort and a feeling of heaviness in rectum.
  • Pain
  • Mucus discharge from anus with itching
  • Anaemia due to bleeding


  • Bleeding
  • Thrombosis

Lifestyle and Diet changes

  • Avoid sedentary lifestyle
  • Keep the anal area clean by washing it with luke warm water. Avoid using dry toilet paper.
  • Practice Sitz bath: Sit in a tub of warm water for 10 minutes.
  • Apply cold packs on anus to relieve swelling.
  • Don’t control the urge to pass stool.
  • Stay active. Include some physical activities like walking, jogging in your daily routine.


  • Consume 3-4 litres of water every day.
  • Include fibre rich diet- green leafy vegetables and fruits.
  • Include whole grains and millets.
  • Avoid spicy foods, fried foods, maida.